With a mere 22 million people, the island of Taiwan is a dwarf compared to mainland China's(People's Republic of China) 1,200 million people. Taiwan is the location of the Republic of China(ROC).
In 1949 Mao Zedong's rebel forces defeated Chan Kai Shek's armies which then retreated across the Taiwan Straits to Taiwan and set up a government in exile. Since 1949 there has been ongoing tension between the two parties. Fortunately, bullets have never been fired.
The two governments have never argued over the fact that there is only one China. With agreement on this point, Taiwan is then a province of China. Their dis-agreement is over who is the legal government of the one China.
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